Richard Cloward began his academic career in the late 1950’s. His first published work was a well-received revision of Merton’s theory of anomie titled, Illegitimate Means, Anomie, and Deviant Behavior. Cloward, along with Lloyd Ohlin, expanded upon this revision and developed a theory of delinquent gangs in, what is perhaps his most influential work, Delinquency and Opportunity.
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As with Cloward and Ohlin and Merton, there is no discussion of female deviancy, his study is solely based on males. Also, Cohen failed to prove that school really was the environment in which success and failure are demonstrated mainly. But the major criticism of his work is that he assumes the young delinquents must be brilliant sociologists to work out that they are lower-class, to work out.
Evaluation Retreatist subcultures Conflict subcultures Brief summary of their theory CLoward and Ohlin say not everyone in such a situation turns to innovation like Merton says. Different subcultures respond differently to a lack of legitimate opportunities. Cloward and Ohlin.
Cloward and Ohlin have produced a significant contribution to under-standing human behavior. Moving from the idea of differential associations as posited by Sutherland, Cloward and Ohlin ask what are the conditions under which pressures develop to adapt to a subcultural ethos which denies 1 Richard A. Cloward and Lloyd E. Ohlin, Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs.
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Cloward and Ohlin considered that many young boys would suffer from problems of adjustment and frustrated ambition. Some would look for deviant solution .Cloward and Ohlin added a new perspective to strain theory by suggesting that access to illegitimate opportunities was unevenly distributed. As a result the types of delinquency and of associated subcultures in which those youth participated.
Even in this intended evaluation of Cloward and Ohlin's theory the main purpose Is to find out the extent to which the theory fulfils the rigorous logical requirements rather than to discard it completely. Central idea in 'delinquency and opportunity theory :— In this theory Cloward and Ohlin are trying to explain 'delinquent subculture': and their major emphasis is on 'relative.